The threat to St Kilda Road is recognised but Underestimated in the EES
(Environmental Effects Statement) - Selected relevant sections, and comments -
The comments casually mention the impacts but conclude they are for the greater good.
Evaluation objective – To avoid or minimise adverse effects on trees as far as practicable,
having regard to heritage, landscape, amenity, biodiversity and other values of trees in the
vicinity of Project works.
Arboriculture impacts are addressed in Chapter 16 and 21 and Technical Appendices R and S
of the EES and in Chapter 18 of the IAC Report. EPRs AR1 to AR5 deal with matters relating to
arboriculture and some of these EPRs have been the subject of IAC recommended
The Project area contains some of Melbourne’s most noted parks and gardens, treed avenues
and urban areas where trees make a significant contribution to landscape character and
amenity. The EES suggested that approximately 900 trees will be removed to accommodate
construction sites, construction access and temporary services for the Project. Design changes
put forward by the MMRA during the IAC Hearing reduced that number, with MMRA advising
that the final tree loss is likely to be further reduced through the design process development.
Trees will be removed across all the Project’s precincts, with the highest impacts in the
Parkville and Domain precincts. Within these precincts, tree removal will occur within the
Royal Parade and Grattan Street, Domain Parklands and the Shrine of Remembrance Reserve,
St Kilda Road and Albert Reserve. Some of these trees are subject to heritage protection and
this is discussed further in
Impacts from tree removal would be mitigated in part through a tree replacement program,
established in consultation with relevant parties.
A number of submissions to the IAC emphasised the significant contribution that trees make
to the city through their amenity, landscape, ecological and heritage values and mitigation of
the urban heat island. Given their value, retaining as many trees as possible is an appropriate
goal for the Project, as articulated in EPR AR1. During the IAC Hearing, MMRA submitted
modifications to the concept design to retain 69 trees in Fawkner Park and 46 in Domain
Parklands. Mature trees, especially but not only those in avenue and parkland settings, are
an intrinsic element of the character of Melbourne. Their contribution to the essence of the
city must not be underestimated. As an overarching principle, I endorse the premise of EPR
AR1 that maximum possible tree retention be an objective of the Project’s detailed design
Unlike many other impacts arising from the construction phase, the impacts resulting from
tree removal will not cease as soon as construction is complete. Replacement trees can be
planted, but it may take decades for the replacement trees to reach the stature of the mature
trees that may have been lost.
A number of trees could be impacted by the proposed Linlithgow Avenue temporary access
shaft location in the Domain Parklands. The City of Melbourne submitted an alternate site,
within Tom’s Block adjacent to Linlithgow Avenue, which may have less landscape impact as
it would be closer or adjacent to existing hardstand areas. My findings in regards to the
Linlithgow access shaft location are further discussed in Section 5.1.
The Arboriculture EPRs will guide the selection of appropriate strategies for tree replacement
along avenues as well as within parks and other public spaces. In avenue plantings such as
Royal Parade and St Kilda Rd, where like‐for‐like replanting will occur, MMRA stated that Block
replacement strategies can mitigate against wholesale removal and loss of amenity along an
entire avenue by staged replacement of discrete sections within the avenue. The tree
replacement program would be guided by the Cities of Melbourne, Port Phillip and
Stonnington urban forest strategies and requirements of relevant conservation management
plans for places included on the Victorian Heritage Register (such as St Kilda Road).
The IAC made comment on the use of “advanced” or “super advanced” tree stock, which may
be appropriate in some instances to achieve quicker canopy cover, but noting that this needs
to be balanced with the potential for problems with long‐term survival associated with larger
stock. I support the IAC’s recommendation that protocols be established to govern the use of
advanced and super advanced trees. Similarly, in response to submissions calling for
transplanting of existing trees, MMRA’s expert arborist Mr Patrick noted that such practices
have low success rates and it is preferable to plant new, vigorous, young trees with a secure
future contribution than to move store and re‐plant mature and over‐mature vegetation. The
EES noted that exceptions to this principle include palms such as Canary Island Palm and
Cotton Palm which transplant readily and their relocation and reinstatement are addressed
in EPR AR1.
While I note the IAC’s consideration of the expert evidence it heard regarding the challenges
of transplanting mature specimens of other tree species, I consider that all practicable options
should be explored to avoid the loss of mature trees, especially where removal is needed only
for the construction phase of the Project.
It is my assessment that the likely effects on arboriculture can be adequately managed
through the EPRs, as amended, although I acknowledge that there will be residual impacts,
particularly in the Parkville, Domain and Eastern Portal Precincts. Those residual impacts
should be minimised as far as practicable through prioritising retention of trees at the detailed
design stage unless removal is unavoidable.
I have concluded that the Project has the potential to, and in some instances will, have
significant effects upon the environment. I have also concluded that, having regard to the
nature of the Project, the environmental effects can be adequately mitigated and managed
within acceptable parameters in the manner set out in this assessment.
The EES highlights that the benefits of the Project, in terms of both direct improvement in
metropolitan rail network capacity, and catalysing the broader transformation of the network
to a more modern, efficient system integrated with other transport modes, will contribute to
Melbourne’s sustainability and liveability for many decades.
The process has also highlighted that the most significant adverse environmental effects
occur during the construction phase.
The inner urban nature of the Project corridor means that construction phase environmental
effects, in particular in areas such as noise and vibration, transport connectivity, heritage,
landscape, social cohesion, business functionality and general amenity will be disruptive, and
at times very difficult for those directly affected. The EES process has shown that those
effects, while acknowledged as serious issues for the Project, can be addressed in the context
of the environmental management framework to be put in place under the proposed planning
approval for the Project.
The environment where the Project is to be built is itself the product of an iterative and
ongoing urban development process that has continued for almost two centuries. It is not in
the dynamic nature of cities to be static or “finished.” None of the significant improvements
to public infrastructure that are presently enjoyed occurred without inconvenience. The only
way for Victorians to capture the benefits that this Project will deliver, is for them to recognise
that in the short term there will be disruption.
The adverse effects of the Project will occur over a relatively short period compared with the
lasting benefits of the Project – those benefits are inseparable from the effects of
construction. At the same time, it is incumbent on government, all Victorians and in particular
the MMRA to recognise that while the benefits of the Project will be enjoyed by many, the
burdens of the construction phase will be borne by relatively few, and that those burdens will
at times result in significant impacts upon the lives of ordinary people, where they live and
work, go to school, recreate and travel.
The MMRA, as a representative of the State, is entrusted to take a responsive and responsible
attitude to managing those effects and protecting the legitimate interests of its neighbours
The National Heritage criteria against which the heritage values of a place are assessed
Criteria (A): Events and processes
The place has outstanding heritage value to the nation because of the place’s importance in
the course, or pattern, of Australia’s natural or cultural history.
St Kilda Road and Domain Parklands is Melbourne’s main processional, ceremonial and
commemorative Boulevard and has been at the centre of key national events.
The national significance comes in part because of Melbourne being variously Australia’s
largest city and National Capital for the last part of the nineteenth century and capital up until
1927. It was also the capital de facto for a long time after Canberra was established with the
headquarters of many national institutions and functions located in Melbourne e.g. The
Defence and Intelligence functions, many government departments etc. Major institutions
are located along the Boulevard and associated precincts. The institutions have played
important parts in Australia’s national development and life.
It is an area where major monuments commemorate events and people in the Nation’s
history. The setting of parklands of large trees, Boulevards and vistas are integral to these
heritage values. The integrity of the parklands is threatened by the removal of many trees
and the disruption of vistas and Boulevards.
No other street and precinct in Australia has such a concentration of major institutions and
Arts Centre Melbourne - comprising of Hamer Hall, Theatres Building and Sidney Myer
National Gallery of Victoria
Victorian College of the Arts
La Trobe’s Cottage
Shrine of Remembrance
Melbourne Grammar School
First Church of Christ Science
Royal District Nursing Service – 452 St Kilda Rd
It also contains some of the most significant memorials to Australian servicemen and women,
its war heroes and leaders.
Field Marshal Sir Thomas Blamey
Turkish war dead
Greek war memorial
General Sir John Monash
Sir Edward (Weary) Dunlop,
South African Soldier memorial
Boer War Monument
It is also a place that has commemorates Australia’s heads of State with memorials to
King Edward V11 and
King George V
Marquis of Linlithgow
Monuments to community service:
the Police Memorial
Location of monuments erected by or in honour of or by major public philanthropists
MacPherson Memorial Fountain
Janet Lady Clarke
The remnants of a number of Melbourne’s grand Victorian mansions still survive in St Kilda
The remnants of the Chevron Hotel – now apartments
The place satisfies the criteria in the following respects:
Importance is established because of the National significance of the place in Australia’s
history in the following respects:
As seat of the national government, the First and second world Wars were directed from
within the area with the political and military leadership operating out of buildings in the
Both wars had massive impacts on Australia. The loss of life and related injuries from the
First World War crippled Australia’s development and led to profound out pouring of
grief and distress. This is reflected in the construction of the Shrine and the plethora of
sites associated with the Boulevard and the Shrine itself.
ANZAC and other commemorations associated with Australia’s conflicts centre on this
area. The places are interlinked. Australia’s participation in the Boer war was run from
the barracks which was Britain’s military headquarters in this region moving from Sydney
in the third quarter of the nineteenth century. The Boer War was the first war Australia
fought as a nation – after Federation. The Boer war memorials are both in St Kilda Road.
One will have its whole setting and aesthetic destroyed by the project. The Barracks was
a central recruiting station in the First World War and a major station for dispensing relief
with the establishment of the ANZAC Buffet at No5 Australian General Hospital in St Kilda
The successor to the same group provided coffee after the Dawn Service at the entrance
to the Barracks until the catering was institutionalised ten years ago.
The Ball Room of Government House in Melbourne was turned into a hospital during the
First War and the records of the Red Cross were kept in its stables. The inter relationship
of the buildings are highly significant to understanding Australia’s war effort, welfare for
soldiers and their families and commemoration.
The Second World War was directed from St Kilda Road with the war cabinet meeting at
The Boulevard and surrounding parkland were developed to be major statements about
the significance of Australia. It was the main thoroughfare to Government House –
residence of the Governor General until 1927. It was shaped as an Australia’s equivalent
of London’s Mall.
The Shrine of Remembrance is of National historical significance as a memorial that
demonstrates many great national values and the significance of the war on the nation. It
was the largest and most important war memorial in Australia (until the Australian War
Memorial was opened in 1941). It reflects the community's need for a public expression
of grief and of commemoration for the sacrifice of life in war. A vast number of memorials,
in many different forms, were constructed in the State from the end of World War I and
into the 1920s. When the project was conceived, Melbourne was the seat of Federal
Parliament and this resulted in the grandest memorial in Australia.
The Boulevard was the site of the procession for the Duke of York who opened
Australia’s First Parliament in Melbourne in 1901. Triumphal arches were built spanning
the Boulevard – similar arches were built for the centenary celebration in 2001.
St Kilda Road is historically significant as one of Australia's longest and grandest major
thoroughfares. For over a century this European-style Boulevard has had an iconic status as
the southern gateway to the city. Dating from the 1850s, St Kilda Road was developed into a
magnificent tree-lined Boulevard during the late nineteenth century and was the location of
some of Victoria's major public institutions. From the 1880s Melbourne's wealthy constructed
impressive residences at this prestigious address and from the 1950s it became a centre for
commercial activity. St Kilda Road has been used for ceremonial and celebratory processions
including those associated with the Duke of Edinburgh's visit to Melbourne in 1867, the
opening of the International Exhibition of 1880, and the opening of the Australian Federal
Parliament in 1901. It remains the site of Victoria's annual ANZAC Day march, Moomba
parades, political protests and public events.
Victoria Barracks Melbourne, built substantially in the late 1850s-early 1860s, with some
additions in later periods, is highly significant. Historically, the precinct is associated with a
vast span of Australia's defence history. The Barracks were built when Imperial forces
defended the Australian colonies. With the departure of British forces, the change to colonial
defences and then with Federation and the Commonwealth's assumption of responsibility for
defence matters, the Barracks' accommodation role changed and the complex was used
increasingly for offices.
Victoria Barracks became the headquarters for Australia's defence administration, and the
complex retained this role until the Department of Defence moved to Canberra in the late
1950s. Victoria Barracks played a crucial role during both World Wars, and this was especially
so during the Second World War when the War Cabinet met within the complex. Also, nearly
all wartime comedy radio programmes emanated from Victoria Barracks. It was the
Headquarters for Australia’s intelligence services. Both ASIS and ASIO had their offices in the
precinct until they moved to Canberra. The ASIO office in St Kilda Road was “raided” by the
then Attorney General Lionel Murphy – a nationally significant event.
Criteria (b): Rarity
The Boulevard is rare and uncommon in Australian urban development. Sydney’s topography
and development restricted the use of the Boulevard design. Adelaide developed some but
not all of the scale or significance. Other cities were restricted by land use, geography or
other circumstances. Many of the other cities preferred native plantings.
It was because of Melbourne’s wealth and period as national capital that the Boulevard and
its associated institutions took shape.
Another aspect of rarity is found in the construction of the Shrine.
The monumental war memorial movement after the First World War was an important social
movement that sought to establish monuments to the dead and the values associated with
the First War. The Shrine of Remembrance was a prize winning entry in 1922. The state opted
for a grand monument in a formal and impressive setting. It was dedicated by Henry Duke of
Gloucester before a massive crowd of 327,000 – three times as many as had gathered in
Sydney for an equivalent event (Inglis, 1998) John Monash wrote the texts for the Shrine
engravings (Inglis, 1998). It was his last gift to the city. His memorial service was held at the
Shrine in 1931, with 50,000 in attendance and 250,000 lining St Kilda Road from the Shrine to
his burial in Brighton Cemetery. Monash was instrumental in having the Shrine design
selected – inspired in part by the Lincoln Memorial in Washington – with its monumental
approaches from both the East and West. Monash executed the design using his engineering
skills and raised the public monies £160,000 pounds compared with Sydney’s public
fundraising of £10,000.
The First statue of an AIF figure was located in the nominated place Simpson and his Donkey
in 1936. The whole precinct was designed and prosecuted when there was no certainty that
the federal capital would have a war memorial. The RSL was headquartered in Melbourne.
The monument movement was controversial. Many wanted more utilitarian war memorials
such as Hospitals and bridges. Melbourne in large part because it was the National Capital,
promoted the largest and most impressive monument in the country dominating the city
The State Heritage list makes particular reference to the Shrine’s standing in the landscape
and the plantings surrounding it. The design relies on the standing given by its landscaping.
To damage the integrity of the landscaping will do damage to the heritage values of the
Furthermore the shrine and its grounds house many related monuments – arguably no other
comparable collection exists in Australia except that developed and developing around the
National War Memorial in Canberra which is NHL Listed:
The Eternal Flame;
The Cenotaph commemorating the Second War;
The Gallipoli Memorial;
The Man with His Donkey;
The Horse Trough Monument erected by the Purple Cross Society;
Driver and Wipers Statues;
The Legacy Garden of Appreciation including Louis Larmen’s sculpture Widow and
The Remembrance Garden commemorating post second world war conflicts;
Lawn memorial for Australian Independent Companies Commando Squadrons ;
Lawn memorial for World War Two Airborne Forces; and
Lone Pine planted within the Shrine reserve. It is an early example and one of a small
No other cultural landscape in the Country combines so many significant institutions to the
conduct of the Nation’s affairs until the construction of Canberra – the Governor General’s
seat, the Nation’s military command in a designed landscape that evolved into a national
centre for commemorating the First World War.
Criterion (d): Principal characteristics of a class of places
St Kilda Road and Environs provide Australia’s longest and grandest Boulevard with one of
Australia’s most highly developed cultural landscapes. The planning and gradual development
of the Boulevard has cumulatively built an ensemble of major buildings, institutions,
memorials and public artworks that draw on each other and the Boulevard to enhance their
It was one of the first of Melbourne's main roads (Royal Parade, Flemington Road, Dandenong
Road and Queens Parade) to be laid out as a Boulevard around 1889, and is the longest
metropolitan Boulevard in Australia. Boulevards are wide and tree-lined roads which often
separate traffic types with medians strips. They are an urban design form which characterised
the development of European cities from the 1750s and became evident in Australia from the
mid-nineteenth century. St Kilda Road demonstrates the characteristics of a Boulevard at a
high level, with consistent medians and trees extending almost the whole length of the road,
for approximately four kilometres, although there is variation in the intactness of some of the
plantings. St Kilda Road has developed over time to safely accommodate many different forms
of traffic, including trams, cars, bicycles and buses.
There is a strong functional relationship between all the buildings and the surrounding
parklands, to address or draw upon the Boulevard. The manner in which facades, grand
entrances and vistas have been created render a sophistication in urban design and
development of exceptional significance.
Vice Regal Power was expressed on a scale and grandeur unmatched in the rest of the country
in the Melbourne design, St Kilda Road and Environs are central to that plan. Aspects include
the use of parklands, avenues, Boulevards, and formal entrances, the scale of Government
House Melbourne, use of statuary, and proximity to seat of Military authority combined with
the majesty of the Boulevard both to and from the city. This was later augmented by the
positioning of the Shrine.
Criterion (e): Aesthetic characteristics
The characteristics are found in several aspects of the nominated place – all of them are
The Shrine: The Victorian Heritage Register asserts that “The Shrine of Remembrance is of
aesthetic significance for its design within the landscape, which ensures prominence and
vistas from all directions. The array of war memorials and plantings, some of which are formal
and others that relate symbolically to the wars of the twentieth century, add to this aesthetic
landscape. It is significant as a place of ceremonial purpose, a place of separateness and
grandeur which is heightened by its isolated and elevated siting on the edge of the city, and
its highly formal and axial planning.
See more at: http://vhd.heritagecouncil.vic.gov.au/places/806#statement-significance
St Kilda Road
It demonstrates the Boulevard feature in urban design to a greater extent than any other
comparable place in Australia. This is demonstrated by its length, the number of places of
significance, the manner in which they draw on the majesty of the Boulevard for their
standing, the relative intactness of its plantings. The Boulevard and associated parkland are
defining elements of the city’s identity – the significance of this to the Nation rests in part
upon Melbourne’s role as Capital for the first quarter of last century and the formative
influence its layout played in the formation of the nation.
The parklands represent the most significant intact area of mature trees adjacent to the CBD.
It provides Melbourne’s special character of the Garden State and a city of parklands. St Kilda
Road is of aesthetic significance as an iconic Boulevard which has been recognised as a place
of beauty and a visually outstanding element in Australia's urban landscape. A broad and
stately thoroughfare, its intact and impressive plantings of mature Elm and Plane trees
beautify the southern access to the city. The overarching tree canopies are of considerable
visual appeal, provide a sense of enclosure and exemplify the aesthetic use of trees as a road
design device. The sweeping views between the Shrine of Remembrance, St Kilda Road and
Swanston Street are significant for their emphasis on St Kilda Rd as a processional route
between the Shrine and the city. There are also important visual associations with the Queen
Victoria Garden and Domain parklands to the east.
The statement of significance in the CHL for Victoria Barracks captures the issue – “With its
many bluestone buildings and their hipped roofs (a number clad with slate), the complex has
a very definite historical character. This ambience, together with the complex's axial
planning, the views within the complex over the Parade Ground and associated buildings, the
complementarity of the materials, the architectural styles of the buildings, the relatively low
scale of the structures, the landscaping, and the formal and imposing face that the Barracks
shows toward busy St Kilda Road, all contribute to significant aesthetic qualities.”
The aesthetic value of mature plantings of European trees is highly valued by the Australian
community as giving Melbourne it is particular “European” characteristic. No other Australian
city uses Boulevards to the same affect. Royal, Wellington and Victoria Parades and
Flemington Road have similar characteristics but nothing like the length and distribution of
major institutions. The European plantings especially the planning of the parklands
surrounding the CBD are Melbourne’s greatest natural feature. They are to Melbourne what
Sydney Harbour is to Sydney. The relationship of parklands – the Domain and Botanical
gardens, the Boulevard its ceremonial buildings and major institutions is not seen elsewhere
Criterion (f): Creative or technical achievement
The Domain Parklands contain a number of well-established and intact avenues and groups
of trees to create a landscape of outstanding quality and diversity. There are avenues, rows
and/or specimen trees of Ulmus, Platanus, Populus, Quercus, Ficus, Eucalyptus, Corymbia,
Angophora, Callitris, Agathis, Schinus, Juniperus, Pittosporum, Erythrina, Rapanea,
Brachychiton, Elaeodendron, Calodendrum, Cedrus, Pinus, Cupressus, Araucaria, Olea,
Cinnamomum, Magnolia, Grevillea, Fraxinus, Alectryon, Agonis, Syncarpia, Syzygium,
Lophostemon, Lagunaria, and Butia, Phoenix and Washingtonia palms. The wide variety of
tree forms, evergreen, deciduous trees providing autumn colour, leaf shapes and palm fronds,
dense conifer foliage (green, golden and blue), bark texture and colour, all combine to give a
contrasting and diverse landscape of high landscape and aesthetic value.
The technical achievement in getting the trees to grow was important and was achieved after
many false starts. The research around this issue merits further work. It was part of the
inspiration for Weston’s plan for Canberra.
The landscaping specifically the placement of buildings (particularly the Shrine) and the
location of statuary, institutional structures in relation to the Boulevard combine to give the
Boulevard a potency that has been continually enhanced. The nearest to it the same quality
of landscaping in the Boulevard form in Australia are the avenues of Canberra. St Kilda Road
and associated parklands have been developed in a more difficult planning environment.
The creation of a special feeling of solemnity and significance is associated with the Shrine
and its environs and its dominance of the Boulevard. The public response to the area is
palpable in its acceptance as the main place for commemoration of sacrifice and service in
war. The area has transferred these notions to other groups it is notable that the police force,
rotary, nursing and others chose the area to commemorate service in those fields. The
attraction of the area for parades and expressions of community celebrations of both sorrow
and success is in part because of the aesthetics achieved by its grandeur and attendant
The manner in which the major buildings address the Boulevard is a further technical
achievement that lends significance to the place.
Hamer Hall and the Arts Centre Theatre buildings and particularly its spire provide a visual
gateway to the city when travelling north and a dramatic entry to the Boulevard when
The National gallery with its moat and set back of blue stone panels defines a monumental
grandeur that is replicates the pre-existing facades of its neighbours (below);
the Old Police Depot now the Victorian College of the Arts with its neo classical
presentation of pillars and pediment;
the long façade of Victoria Barracks with its dramatic set back with cannons;
The Old Repatriation Outpatients building to its south controversially used brick to
contrast with the blue stone of the barracks (criticised by Sir Arthur Streeton);
The parklands to the east are planted to enhance the visual splendour of the Boulevard
and to provide grand entrances to the Vice Regal precinct with less formal curving avenues
contrasting with St Kilda Roads symmetry;
The Shrine Crowns the impact and the pedestal that was built for it both gave it
prominence from below but also gave it the vistas and sense of detachment from below.
The Church of the Christian Scientists draws on the sense of place to achieve its
Melbourne Grammar, Wesley College, The Blind Institute and the former Deaf and Dumb
Institution all use the Boulevard to achieve a standing a less auspicious setting would not
afford. The few remaining mansions of St Kilda Road also draw on the same;
The Shrine is separately noted for its architectural merit: The Shrine of Remembrance is of
architectural significance as a large and imposing memorial building, one of seven erected in
Australia between 1925 (Hobart) and 1941 (Canberra). It is a distinctive classically derived
design which draws on symbolic Greek sources and incorporates carefully considered
architectural refinements to correct optical illusions. It is important for its prominent siting,
strong axiality, the variety of materials used, which are all Australian in origin, the unusual
emphasis placed on the interior space, the ray of light in the sanctuary and the array of major
sculptural works, executed by a number of accomplished sculptors.
Criterion (g): Social value
The social significance of the place is demonstrable in several respects:
It is and has been since the start a focus for public events including regal and vice regal
processions, fun runs, Moomba and sporting parades.
It is a place where many community groups choose to memorialise their achievements
It is a place where some of the most notable figures in the Nation are celebrated.
The parklands with their displays of public artworks and open air performances have a
major social relevance established through the response levels.
Private philanthropy has been a characteristic of the National development and a
measure of the social value of the place. St Kilda Road and environs display many
aspects of this:
Philanthropy connected with the Arts Centre and National Gallery are very
significant both institutionally (the Felton Bequest) and in large scale
manifestations such as the Sidney Myer Music Bowl;
M Pavilion and many of the public sculptures
Fountains connected with the Walker and Macpherson families
The Shrine received large levels of private support;
Many institutions celebrated in the gardens are based on private support or service
e.g. Legacy, Rotary and the Nursing organisations;
Francis Ormond gave a great deal of support to the Institute for the Blind;
Both Wesley College and Melbourne Grammar relied heavily at their foundation for
Many of the monuments in the parklands have been funded by private
The site on the southern side of the Park Street St Kilda Road Intersection on the
western side of St Kilda Road was one of Melbourne’s most important undertakers,
partly because of this and the use of St Kilda Road to approach St Kilda, Caulfield
and Brighton Cemeteries St Kilda Road was used for some of the nation’s most
significant funeral processions – sportsmen, gangsters (Squizzy Taylor), and figures
of greater repute.
The Shrine has a dominant impact on the precinct its social significance is defined in the State
Heritage register as follows:
“The Shrine of Remembrance is of social significance as the pre-eminent war memorial in the
State. It has provided a focus for public events, a gathering place, and place for private
reflection since its completion in 1934.
The Shrine of Remembrance is of social significance as it reflects the rare level of public
support given to this building. Despite the Depression, fundraising was very successful and a
large crowd was present at the building's dedication. This highlights the magnitude of the
importance of the memorial to the Australian public
The Shrine and its precinct is a place of extraordinary significance to veterans and to the
community in general. It was built at a time of great hardship in Australia from public
subscriptions. It reflected the communities need to express its grief and gratitude. The
setting of the Shrine in the line of the main Boulevard of the city supported by plantings was
part of a grand plan to commemorate the war dead and the huge sacrifices and privations
from service in World War One.
The precinct provides a solemnity and significance that attracts diverse groups to make
public commemorations of their special events.
Landscaping around St Kilda road provided employment for men (many returned servicemen
from WW1) during the depression. The integral nature of the Boulevard and shrine is
reflected by its placement in the centre of the avenue making it visible from both the North
and the South. The plan uses the Boulevard to magnify the significance and standing of the
Shrine as being in the centre of the grandest Boulevard in the city of the Shrine and the
plantings around it were key to the plan. It is many of these plantings that will be destroyed
under the proposed plan.
Due to its 150 year association with defence and military history, and its place within inner
Melbourne, Victoria Barracks has considerable social significance for both the military
community and the general public.
Criterion (h): Significant people
St Kilda Road and Environs are of historical significance due to its associations with a wide
range of prominent individuals.
The Australian forces in the Boer War were commanded from Melbourne. It was the First
War that Australia as a federated nation fought in. The place has a special association with
the outstanding figure of the First World War Sir John Monash – whose statue is in the
precinct, whose company built Princess Bridge which opens the Boulevard, who was
responsible for leading much of the effort to build the Shrine. Sir Thomas Blamey used
Victoria Barracks as his headquarters in between serving in the Middle East and going to PNG
in the Second War. His statue is in the precinct. General Douglas MacArthur came to
Melbourne after his retreat from the Philippines, and much of the defence of Australia from
the Japanese was planned from Melbourne with most of the commanders visiting the
Victoria Barracks as a whole is associated with a large number of significant Australians and
others. These people include Prime Ministers - Menzies, Curtin and Chifley, Secretaries of the
Department of Defence, senior military figures, and military leaders from Allied countries,
notable military planners, significant architects, and wartime entertainers.
The Domain Parklands is of historical significance for its associations with important figures
in Australia, including Ferdinand von Mueller, Government Botanist (1853-96) and first
Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens (1857-73), who established the initial layout and
planting of the Domain; William Guilfoyle, von Mueller's successor as Director who was
responsible for the late 19th century layout and planting of the Domain and Government
House to Joseph Sayce's plan; Carlo Catani, Chief Engineer of the Public Works Department,
who was the main influence in the design of Alexandra Avenue, Alexandra Gardens and the
Queen Victoria Gardens and Hugh Linaker, prolific public landscape designer in Victoria and
responsible for the layout of the King's Domain.
The schools in the precinct schooled five Prime Ministers – Deakin, Bruce, Menzies, Holt and
Fraser and one Governor General – Casey.
The Boulevard hosted processionsfor the Duke of York – later King George V, Queen Elizabeth
II, and President Lyndon Johnson – the first incumbent US President to visit Australia.
Proposed boundaries please see attached map
Commencing at the south eastern end of Princess Bridge, it follows the river to Swan Street
bridge then crosses Alexandra Avenue to the north western point of the Royal Botanical
Gardens then follows the gardens fence line with the Alexandra and Domain Gardens until
Government House fence commences, it follows Government House fence line (including the
observatory until Dallas Brooks Drive and follows its Eastern side until Domain Road then it
includes the southern side of Domain Road to the title with Melbourne Grammar and follows
that around into St Kilda Road then follows the title line between the owners of properties
facing St Kilda Road on the eastern side until Henry Street Windsor.
It includes the reserve opposite the synagogue at the intersection of St Kilda Road and Toorak
Road. At Henry Street, the border crosses St Kilda Road and then includes everything between
the Eastern border as defined above and the point between title owners and the St Kilda Road
footpath along the western side of St Kilda Road until the intersection with Albert Road where
it includes the Boer War memorial and triangle of parkland. From Park Street to the north it
will include all the road and plantations and footpaths plus the grounds of Victoria Barracks
and the Victorian College of the Arts between St Kilda Road and the facades of the buildings.
The area will continue to include all areas up to the title lines along the western side until